Epigenetics and therapeutic targets in gastrointestinal malignancies

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Discusses the epigenetics in gastrointestinal (GI) cancers Explore the metastatic role(s) of epigenetics in GI cancers. Present epigenetics as biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of GI cancers. Epigenetics as therapeutic solutions for GI cancers

Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies account for substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. They are generally promoted by dysregulated signal transduction and epigenetic pathways, which are controlled by specific enzymes. Recent studies demonstrated that histone deacetylases (HDACs) together with DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) have crucial roles in the signal transduction/epigenetic pathways in GI regulation. In this review, we discuss various enzyme targets and their functional mechanisms responsible for the regulatory processes of GI malignancies. We also discuss the epigenetic therapeutic targets that are mainly facilitated by DNMT and HDAC inhibitors, which have functional consequences and clinical outcomes for GI malignancies.

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